Lawmakers in the United States (US) have announced plans to repeal legislation that authorises the use of military force.
The plans have garnered support from Democrats and Republicans, and could have powerful implications US external conflicts.
Known as AUMFs, short for authorisation for the use of military force, the laws were used to launch the global “War on Terror,” which led to the US invasion of Afghanistan, and the 2002 war in Iraq that toppled Saddam Hussein 20 years ago.
Within the US Constitution, Congress has the power to declare wars. However, several AUMFs have been passed to allow presidents to act on military operations without first consulting congress.
Two of the most controversial and recent AUMFs include:
Neither authorisations had an expiry date nor sunset clause. Since their manifestation almost two decades ago, they have been used to authorise more than 40 military interventions across 19 countries.
Repeal of AUMFs intends to return authority to declare war to Congress and put an end to US involvement in ongoing conflicts.
In late March, the US House of representatives voted to repeal the AUMF that allowed war in Iraq. The repeal must now pass the US Senate to become law. The Senate is also undertaking a separate effort to repeal and replace past war authorisations.
Military power and the United States
Since World War II, the role of the US in military matters and conflicts around the world has been extensive. Over that time the country’s military power has grown to include around 800 military bases in around 70 countries. In comparison, powerful countries such as Britain, France and Russia operate around 30 military bases combined.
The US ranks 121 on the 2020 Global Peace Index — the lowest of any member country of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. According to GPI data, the US scores highly in the militarisation domain. It is ranked 4th out of the five countries with the highest militarisation domain scores. The militarisation domain, one of three domains on the index, consists of a range of indicators that track the level of national military expenditure and armed services personnel, the import and export of major weapons, nuclear and heavy weapons capability, UN peacekeeping contributions, and ease of access to small and light arms. Israel leads the list of countries with the highest militarisation domain scores, followed by Russia in second place, then North Korea. France follows the US in fifth place.
A report from the US Department of Defence, shows that more than two decades of conflict in Afghanistan and the Middle East following the 9/11 attacks has cost the US a total of US$1.55 trillion plus a further $44.8 billion in non-defence spending. As of 2019, an approximated 6,967 US servicemen have died in overseas military operations, and an additional 52,802 had been wounded.