Data from the Global Peace Index shows that civil unrest has doubled over the last decade.
Between 2011 and 2018, the number of both protests and riots roughly doubled, while the number of general strikes quadrupled, from 33 events in 2011 to 135 in 2018.
In most situations, these movements avoid violence, however, both violent and nonviolent demonstrations have become increasingly frequent over the last decade. Seven of the nine GPI regions had increased levels of civil unrest, with the most violence recorded in places where democratic institutions were weak.
Sixty-four per cent were nonviolent demonstrations and another six per cent were general strikes, with the remaining 30 per cent classified as riots. More than 4,700 nonviolent demonstrations were recorded, compared to nearly 2,200 riots.
The high level of civil unrest in 2011 shown in the graph reflects the Arab Spring, followed by a decline in the number of protests in 2012 as these movements either achieved their goals, were repressed by governments, or escalated into civil wars. However, total global civil unrest rose above 2011 levels just three years later and has remained above that level since.
Riots did not decline in the years immediately following the Arab Spring, when the number of anti-government demonstrations fell. The number of riots around the world has increased 282 per cent since 2011. The trend peaked in 2014, especially in countries with fragile democratic institutions, before plateauing. Since 2016, there have been at least 300 events every year.
Protests peaked globally in 2016, as unrest continued to escalate in many countries but violent demonstrations fell off. Teachers, parents, labourers and municipal workers protested in India, which had nearly 150 different demonstrations. Proposed changes to France’s labour laws brought demonstrations and a no confidence vote for then-President François Hollande’s government, while Brazilians protested government corruption, calling for the impeachment of then-President Dilma Rousseff. In the United States, more than 1,000 people were arrested in the nation’s capital that year in protests focusing on police violence, gun violence, and environmental issues.